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What are the Major Elements of Communication Process?

What are the Elements of Effective Communication? In the previous articles, we have given Essay on Corruption and Essay on Women Empowerment. Today we are discussing what are the major elements of a communication process. Communication may be defined as a process concerning the exchange of facts or ideas between persons holding different positions in an organization to achieve mutual harmony. The communication process is dynamic in nature rather than a static phenomenon.

What are the Major Elements of Communication Process?

Major Elements of Communication Process

Communication process as such must be considered a continuous and dynamic interaction, both affecting and being affected by many variables.

Over the years, and with the help of distinguished communication theorists Claude Shannon, Wilbur Lang Schramm and Robert Craig, among others, a simple model of communication has evolved to signify the aforementioned “elements of communication.” Again, there is no universally accepted archetype, and dissidents will flock to anything claiming to be such. Still, what follows is not only an accurate assessment of the basics; it is also an informative lesson for anyone with a desire to better understand the mechanics of communication.

1. Source

He is the person who initiates the communication process or the person who intends to send out a message through a proper medium

m. An effective communication depends on the skills, knowledge, perception and culture of the communicator. The communicator must know the receiving and understanding capabilities of the receiver.

The only qualifications necessary for a source are an origin of information (in Information Theory, the source generates data that one would like to communicate) and an ability to transmit this information, through a channel, to a receiver.

2. Message

A message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear.

The messages can be verbal and non-verbal form; it is communicated to meet the needs of the receiver or audience. Communication doesn’t take place when the recipient is not able to understand and interpret the message.

3. Encoding

Encoding is the process of assembling the message (information, ideas, and thoughts) into a representative design with the objective of ensuring that the receiver can comprehend it. Communication is only established when it results in both the source and the receiver understanding the same information. People who are great communicators are great encoders; they know how to present their message in a way that their audience (receivers) can easily understand. They are also able to identify information that is superfluous, irrelevant or even accidentally offensive, and eliminate it in advance through anticipation.

4. Communication Channel

The person who is interested in communicating has to choose the channel for sending the required information, ideas etc. This information is transmitted to the receiver through certain channels which may be either formal or informal.It is the means of the communication through which the message is delivered from the sender to the receiver of the message. The communication channel can be of any form it can be of spoken, verbal, and media like TV and radio. Success and failure of the communication depend on the right selection of the channel.

5. Decoding

The person who receives the message or symbol from the communicator tries to convert the same in such a way so that he may extract its meaning to his complete understanding.

Both verbal and non-verbal cues help in creating the final message. It also includes how the recipient comprehends the message given by the sender and how he internalizes it. Communication can be successful only when the recipient is able to decode and correctly interpret the message.

6. Receiver

A receiver is the person who receives the message or for whom the message is meant for. It is the receiver who tries to understand the message in the best possible manner in achieving the desired objectives.

A good communicator takes the receivers preconceptions and frames of reference into consideration; how they will react, where common ground is shared, their sense of humor, their moral conduct, etc.

7. Feedback

Feedback is the main component of the communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.


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